Shafin Farko

Bitamin


Gabatarwa

Bitamin (vitamin), nau’i ne na sinadarin abinci, wanda jiki ke buƙatar kaɗan, ba da yawa ba don ya yi aikin da ya dace da shi. Wani Baturen Amurka mai suna Casmir Funk, shi ya ƙago wannan suna a cikin shekarar 1912. Wannan sinadari yana da na’uka 13, sannan kuma akan same shi a cikin abincin da a ke ci musamman ma ‘ya’yan itatuwa da kayan maramari, da kuma kaɗan da ake samu daga dabbobi. Sannan kuma ƙari a kan hakan, jikin mutum ma yakan samar da wasu. Amfaninsa a jikin mutum yana da yawa.

Menene Bitamin?

Bitamin sinadarin abinci ne wanda jiki ke buƙatar adadi kaɗan don jikin ya zauna lafiya, ya kuma yi aikin da ya dace da shi.

Na’ukan Bitamin

Bitamin yana da nau’uka goma sha uku, kuma kowane ɗaya, yana da takamaiman aikin da ya ke yi a jikin mutum. Ba a so bitamin ya yawata a jikin mutum, haka nan ƙarancin sa ma, kan haifar da wata tangarɗa ga jiki. Ana samun bitamin daga abincin da ake ci. Amma wasu daga ciki kuma, jiki ne ke samar da su. Jiki na samar da bitamin D daga hasken rana, kamar yadda ya ke samar da bitamin K a cikin hanji. Ga jerin nau’ukan bitamin ɗin:

Bitamin A: Nau’i ne na bitamin, wanda ke ɗauke da sinadaran da ke gudanar da ayyukan da suka haɗa da:

  • Girman Jiki: bitamin A shi ke taimakawa ƙwayoyin hallitar ɗan’adam (cells) su girma.
  • Gani: bitamin A shi ke ƙara wa ido ƙarfin gani (vision).
  • Garkuwar Jiki: bitamin A yana tallafawa garkuwar jiki (immune system), wajen baiwa jiki kariya daga kamuwa da cututtuka.
  • Fatar Jiki: bitamin A yana taimakawa wajen inganta fatar jiki.
  • Ƙashi: bitamin A yana tallafawa ƙashi da haƙora su girma da kuma zaman su lafiya.
  • Majina: bitamin A yana taimakawa jiki wajen samuwar majina, da sauran su.

Ana samun wannan nau’i na sinadarin bitamin a cikin kayan abinci da suka haɗa da lemo (orange), hanta, karas, kabewa, kifi, madara, ganyayyaki, ‘ya’yan itatuwa masu launin ruwan ɗorawa idan sun nuna, kamar mangwaro, gwaba, da sauran su.


Mangwaro

Ƙarancin sa a jiki kan haifar da dundumi da daddare, bushewar fata da kuma bushewar sinadaran majina, da sauran su.

Bitamin B (B complex): Nau’i  ne na bitamin, wanda ya sake karkasuwa har nau’uka takwas. Yana taka gagarumar rawa wajen zaman jiki lafiya da kuma gudanawar ayyukansa. Dukkan dangogin bitamin B, suna taimakawa wajen mayar da abincin da aka ci zuwa sinadarin gulukos (glucose), wanda shi kuma shi ya ke taimakawa jiki ya samu ƙarfi, haka nan ma maiƙo, da kuma furotin, duk shi ya ke markaɗe su, su koma sinadaran da za su zama masu amfani ga jiki. Akan kira su da B complex a jimillance kuma a Turance. Nau’ukan nasa sun haɗa da:

  1. Bitamin B1 (Thiamine), shi ne bitamin B da ke taimakawa wajen gudanawar ayyukan jijiyoyi, tsokar jiki, da kuma zuciya. Ƙarancinsa a jiki na haifar da cututtukan da suka haɗa da gajiya, jiri ko rashin cikakken aikin tsokar jiki, rashin ɗanɗano a baki, da sauran su. Ana samun sa a nau’ukan abinci da suka haɗa da, dankali, wake, gyaɗa, hanta, da sauransu.
  2. Bitamin B2 (riboflavin), nau’i ne na bitamin B da ke tallafar ayyukan majinar da ke taimakawa wajen yin nunfashi. Ƙarancin sa a jiki kan haifar da cututtukan da suka haɗa da tsagewar fatar jiki musamman leɓe da ƙofar hanci, ƙaiƙayi da kuma jan-ido, da sauransu. Ana saumun wannan nau’i na bitamin a cikin, hanta, madara, korayen ganyayyaki masu duhu, ayaba, nau’ukan hatsi, da sauran su.
  3. Bitamin B3 (niacin), nau’i ne na bitamin B, yana tallafawa wajen narkar da abinci (digestive system), ayyukan jijiya (nervous system) da kuma ayyukan fata. Ƙarancin sa a jiki kan haifar da rashin ɗanɗano, kasala, amai, gudawa, rashin narkewar abinci, ruɗewa, da sauran su. Ana samunsa a nau’ukan abinci da suka haɗa da nama, ƙwai, kifi, ganyayyaki, hanta, gyaɗa, da sauransu.
  4. Bitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), nau’in bitamin B ne da ke samar da ƙwayoyin halittar da ke samar da jan-jini (red blood cells), da kuma sinadarin da ya shafi ɓangaren jima’i (mucus), da kuma kariya daga gajiya. Ƙarancin sa a jiki duk da cewa ba kasafai hakan ke faruwa ba, yana haifar da matsaloli kamar amai, gajiya, damuwa, ciwon ciki, zafin ƙafa, da sauransu. Ana samun sa a nau’ukan abinci da suka haɗa da nama, hatsi, masara, tumatir, ƙwarfilawa, (cauliflower), ƙwaiduwar ƙwai, madara, hanta, huhu, dankali, da sauran su.
  5. Bitamin B6 (pyridoxine), nau’in bitamin B ne da ke taimakawa wajen haɓɓakar ƙwaƙwalwa da kuma yin aikinta, tallafa wa ƙwayoyin halittar da ke kai saƙonni (neurotransmitters) daga wannan jijiyar zuwa waccar, samuwar sinadarin jan-jini, gudanawar aikin maiƙo, da kuma ƙwayoyin halittar garkuwar jiki. Ƙarancin sa kan haifar da mantuwa, raunin jiki, raunin jijiya, damuwa, ciwon zuciya, da sauransu. Ana samun sa a dafaffen abincin hatsi, naman ‘yan tsaki da na talotalo, madara, wake, karas, ayaba, dankali, da sauran su.
  6. Bitamin B7 (biotin), nau’in bitamin B ne da ke tallafa wa fata, suma/gashi (hair), da kuma farce su zama cikin lafiya da inganci. Akan ma saka shi a cikin mayukan gyaran fata da gashi. Ƙarancin sa duk da cewa ba kasafai hakan ke faruwa ba saboda ƙwayoyin halittar da ke narkar da abinci (enzymes) suna samar da shi, amma duk da haka idan ya ƙaranta a jiki, akan samu matsalar da ta shafi narkewar abinci, bushewar fata, zubewar gashi, gajiya, ciwon jiki, matsalar jijiya (nerve), da sauran su. Ana samunsa a cikin abincin da suka haɗa da kifi, karas, ƙwarfilawa (cauliflower), hanta, ƙwaiduwar ƙwai, korayen ganyayyaki, da sauran su.
  7. Bitamin B9 (folic acid), nau’in bitamin B ne da ke bayar da gagarumar gudunmawa wajen aikin ƙwaƙwalwa, tunani, ƙwayoyin halittar gado (NDA), girman tsokar jiki a lokacin goyon ciki, jarirantaka, da sauran su. ƙarancin sa a jiki kan haifar da matsalolin da suka haɗa da matsalar girman jiki, rashin ɗanɗano, gajeren nunfashi, gudawa, mantuwa, da sauran su. Ana samunsa a cikin abinci irin su wake, latas, lemo (orange), alkama, da sauran su.
  8. Bitamin B12 (cobalamin), nau’in bitamin B ne da ke samar da sinadarin jan-jini, ƙwayoyin halittar gado (DNA), dukkan ƙwayoyin halittun gado, da kuma tallafawa aikin jijiyoyi. Ƙarancin sa a jiki kan haifar da matsalolin da suka haɗa da tangarɗar ciki da kuma na hanji, matsalar ƙwaƙwalwa, ruɗewa, da kuma sauran matsalolin tunani, da sauransu. Ana samun sa a cikin abinci irin su nama, tsuntsaye, kifi, ƙwai, madara, korayen ganyayyaki, lemo (orange), hanta, hatsi, alkama, shinkafa, da sauran su.


Kokumba

Bitamin C (ascorbic acid): nau’in bitamin ne da ya ke:

  • Tallafawa wajen gina ƙashi.
  • Gina haƙora.
  • Gina tsokar jiki.
  • Tallafawa ayyukan sassan jini (jijiya da mataimakanta waɗanda jini ke gudana ta cikin su).
  • Gina damatsu da sauransu. Sannan kuma ya ke ba su kariya. 

Ƙarancin sa kan haifar da matsaloli kamar irin su saurin kamuwa da cututtuka, zubar jinin dasashi/dadashi, gajiya, raunin jiki, da sauran su. Ana samun sa a cikin abincin da ya haɗa da ‘ya’yan itatuwa masu tsami, abarba, gwaiba, tumatir, koren tattasai, kabeji, hanta, da kuma mafiya yawan ‘ya’yan itatuwa da kuma dangogin kayan miya, da sauran su.

Bitamin D (cholecalciferol (D3), Ergocalciferol (D2)): nau’in bitamin ne da ke gina ƙashi da kuma haƙora. Ƙaracin sa a jiki na haifar da rashin ƙwarin ƙashi musamman ga yara. Fatar jikin ɗan’adam ita ke samar da shi daga hasken rana. Hakan nan ma kuma akan same shi a cikin abinci kamar irin su ƙwai, hanta, sadin, da sauran su.

Bitmani E (tocopherols): bitamin ne da ke da alhakin samar da sinadaran jan-jini. Ƙarancinsa kuma na haifar da ɓarin ciki ga mata. Ana samun sa a cikin man girki, alkama, hatsi, gyaɗa, da kuma korayen ganyayyakin miya.

Bitamin K: nau’in bitamin ne da ke tallafawa sinadarin jini. Ƙarancin sa kan haifar da zubar jini. Ana kuma samun sa a cikin abincin da ya haɗa da korayen ganyayyakin miya, ƙwaiduwar ƙwai, hanta, kifi, waken suya, da kuma madara. Haka nan ma kuma ƙwayoyin halitta na bakteriya na samar da shi a cikin hanji.


Kifi
 

Rabe-Raben Bitamin     

Masana sun kasa dukkan nau’ukan Bitamin gida biyu;

  1. Masu bin ruwa (water soluble vitamins):

    Waɗannan su ne nau’ukan bitamin ɗin da su ke shiga cikin ruwan da ke jikin mutum su narke. Basa zama a cikin jikin mutum, da zarar jiki ya gama tsotsar wanda ya ke buƙata, sai kuma a fitsarar da maras amfanin da jiki ya tace. Dukkan rukunin bitamin B da kuma bitamin C, masu bin ruwa ne.

  2. Masu bin maiƙo (fat soluble vitamins):

    Waɗannan su ne nau’ukan bitamin ɗin da su ke shiga cikin maiƙo (fat), ko kitsen da ke jikin mutum su narke a ciki. Bitamin ne da jiki ke riƙe su don amfani da su sannu a hankali. Sukan zauna a jikin mutum kamawa daga kwana ɗaya har zuwa watanni. Bitamin ɗin A, D, E, da K, dukkan su masu bin maiƙo ne. Kuma hanji ne ke ajiye wasun su, wasu kuma a cikin hanta, wasu kuma cikin kitse da sauran sassan jiki masu maiƙo.

Manazarta:


Alina B. (2015). What is Biotin (Vitamin B7)? Live Science. An ciro a shekarar 2017, daga shafin: http://www.livescience.com/51696-biotin-vitamin-b7.htmlhtml

Christian N. (2016). Vitamins: What They Are and What They Do. An ciro a shekarar 2017, daga shafin: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/195878.php

Dr. Josh A. (2017). Biotin Benefits: Thicken Hair, Nails and Beautify Skin.  An ciro a shekarar 2017, daga shafin: https://draɗe.com/biotin-benefits/

Dr. Axe (2017). Vitamin A: Benefits, Sources & Side Effects. An ciro a shekarar 2017, daga shafin: https://draɗe.com/vitamin-a/

Health Aliciousness (2016). Top 10 Foods Highest in Vitamin B9 (Folate) An ciro a shekarar 2017, daga shafin: https://www.healthaliciousness.com/articles/foods-high-in-folate-vitamin-B9.php

Mayo Clinic (2009). Vitamins and Minerals What You Should Know About Essential Nutrients. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN 55905.