Shafin Farko

Gero


Gabatarwa

Gero, nau’i ne na ciyawa wacce ake nomawa domin samun abinci a halin da aka saba. Yana daga cikin dangogin hatsi waɗanda a Turance ake kira grains. Kayan amfanin gona ne da ake ganin ya haura sama da shekaru dubu biyar ana noma shi a duniya.

Gero, nau’in tsiro ne mai matuƙar juriya. Yana jure wa fari, dalilin da ya sa har a sahara ma ana shuka shi. Guri ɗaya kawai da a gargajiyance da kuma kimiyance ake ganin ya gagari gero rayuwa shi ne guri mai danshi ko mai riƙe ruwa. Amma don dai gurare irin su kanda, rairayi da sauransu, gero zamansa yake yi ya wataya.

Yana ɗauke da sinadaran abinci masu matuƙar fa’ida ga jikin mutum. Wannan dalilin ne ya saka gero taimaka wa jiki wajen yaƙar cututtuka da dama duk da cewa shi mafi rinjayensa kabohaidiret ne da yake bayar da ƙarfi.

Wannan rubutu zai ɗan yi tsinkaye dangane da abin da ya shafi asalin gero, sunansa a kimiyance, yanayin noma shi,  muhimman sinadaran da ke cikinsa, amfaninsa a lafiyance da kuma muhimman abinciccikan da ake haɗawa da shi a Ƙasar Hausa.

Sai dai, wani hanzari ba gudu ba, dukkan abin da za a kawo a wannan rubutu, ya shafi geron da a Turance ake kira Pearl millet.

Asali

Wasu manazarta suna ganin gero fa jar fata ne da ya fito daga yankin Asiya. Wasu kuma suka ce a’a, baƙi ne ɗan asalin Afirka. Microsoft Encarta (2009), ya ruwaito cewa ana noma gero a yankin Asiya sama da shekaru dubu biyar, nahiyar da ake yi wa kallon cewa daga can ya samo asali. Tun shekaru dubu biyu da ɗari bakwai kafin aiko Annabi Isa (2700 BC) ake noma gero a Cana, a ruwayar Sahu da Sharma (2013).  Britannica (2010), kuma sun ce an fara noma shi kodai a Asiya ko a Afirka sama da shekaru dubu huɗu. Sai kuma Changmei da Dorothy (2014), da suka ruwaito cewa, gero shi ne hatsi mafi daɗewa da mutum ya fara sani a duniya sannan kuma na farko a abincin gida, kuma cewa shi ɗan asalin Afrika ne da ake noma shi sama da shekaru dubu huɗu da suka shuɗe.

Suna

Sunan gero a turance shi ne millet, a kimiyyar aikin gona kuma ana kiransa da Pennisetum glaucum.

Noma

Gero, kayan amfanin gona ne mai juriya. Yana iya jure wa fari sannan kuma yana iya rayuwa a ƙasar da bata da ƙarfi sosai. Ana shuka shi sannan kuma a girbe shi a tsawon kwanaki sittin zuwa tamanin.

Gero yana iya rayuwa a ƙasa maras ƙarfi sosai, yana jure wa fari (Ɗaukewa ko yankewar ruwan sama na wani lokaci mai tsawo wanda yake kamawa daga kwanaki talatin zuwa hamsin), yana jure wa ƙwari da ciyawa, sannan kuma baya ɗaukar dogon lokaci kafin ya nuna. Ana noma shi a kodawane lokaci a cikin shekara sannan kuma a kowace ƙasa a faɗin duniya.

An fi noma gero a ƙasashe irin su Indiya, Nijeriya, Nijar, Cana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Habasha (Ethiopia), Cadi, Sinigal, Rasha. Duk da cewa, Indiya ce ta fi kowace ƙasa noma gero a duniya.

Ƙasashe irin su China, India, Najeriya, Nijar, Asiya ta tsakiya da Asiya ta Yamma, Afirka ta Yamma, ƙasashen rusasshiyar Tarayyar Sobiyet da sauransu domin abinci suke noma gero. A ƙasar Amurka kuma da Yammacin Turai, ana noma shi a matsayin abincin kaji, tsuntsaye da kuma dabbobi.

Sinadarai

Gero yana ɗauke da sinadaran abinci da dama. Muhimmai daga cikin su sun cewa duk rabin kofi ɗaya na gero mai nauyin giram 100 yana ɗauke da:

  1. Giram 10.6  na furotin.
  2. Giram 17.3 na ruwa.
  3. Giram 1.3 na faiba.
  4. Giram 5.0 na maiƙo.
  5. Giram 8 na bitamin.
  6. Giram 2.3 na minaral.
  7. Milgiram 8 na ayon.
  8. Milgiram 38 na kalsiyom.
  9. Giram 67 na Kabohaidiret, wanda shi ne muhimmin sinadarin da yake ɗauke da shi.
  10. Yana ɗauke da adadin kaloris 380.

Sanarwa: Dafaffen gero kofi ɗaya yana bayar da kashi ashirin da shida da ɗigo 4 cikin ɗari (26.4%) na adadin sinadarin maganiziyom da ake so mutum ya samu kullum.

Amfani

Abu ne mai matuƙar wahala a iyakance amfanin da gero yake da shi a rayuwar ɗan’adam. Sarita da Signh (2016) daga jami’ar Banasthali da ke ƙasar Indiya suka ce, gero yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a harkar tsarin garkuwar jiki, sannan kuma yana matuƙar hana taɓarɓarewar lafiyar jiki kamar ta hanyar saukar da hawan jini, rage barazanar kamuwa da cutar zuciya, kariya daga kamuwa da cutar kansa, ciwon sikari da sauransu.

Saha da Sharma (2013), suka ce gero shi ne hatsi na shida da aka fi amfani da shi a duniya.

Duddan jiki gero yana da amfani, kamawa tun daga tushiyarsa har zuwa hatsin da ke ƙololuwar kansa. Tushen da karan da ciyawar ana amfani da su wajen yin taki, makamashin wuta, shingace gida, kafa ɗakin kwana da sauransu. Shi kuwa kan, wanda shi ne asalin hatsin, a nan sidanaran gina jikin suke wanda ake amfani da shi wajen haɗa abinci dabbobi da na mutane.

Sosuwar gero, ƙaiƙayi, dusa, butaci, da sauransu da ake cirewa bayan sussuka da surfen gero ana haɗa abincin dabbobi da tsuntsaye da shi. Asalin garin kuma da shi ɗan’adam yake haɗa abincinsa musamman a ƙasashe masu tasowa.

Yana matuƙar tallafa wa yara masu tasowa da kuma mata masu juna biyu saboda gwaɓaɓan sinadaran kaloris, bitamin, furotin da kuma misanarls ɗin da yake ɗauke da su kamar yadda Deepak da sauransu (2012) daga jami'oin Mysore Indiya da kuma Max Planck Jamani suka bayyana.

Ga kaɗan daga cikin ɗimbin alfanu da gero yake da su a fannin kiwon lafiya:

  1. Maganin cutar Siga ta hanyar saukar da sinadarin sikarin da ke cikin jini. saboda yana sinadarin faiba da yake ɗauke da shi wanda shi ke da alhakin sarrafa sinadarin Sugar da ke cikin jini.
  2. Maganin gyambon ciki.
  3. Inganta lafiyar zuciya saboda sinadarin maganiziyom da yake ɗauke da shi. Wanda kuma sinadari ne da bincike ya tabbatar da cewa yana rage ƙarfin tarin fuka (Asthma).
  4. Yana saukar da hawan jini tare kuma da rage barazanar kamuwa da cutar bugun zuciya saboda sinadaran maganiziyom da kalsiyom da yake ɗauke da su.
  5. Yana rage yawan sinadarin kwalastero. Saboda yana ɗauke da sinadarin Niyasin (Niacin) wanda shi ne sinadarin bitamin B3 (Vitamin B3).
  6. Narkar da tsakuwar ƙoda: Sinadarin faiba da ke cikin gero, yana taimaka wa wajen narkar da tsakuwar ƙoda.
  7. Ƙara girman ƙashi da haɓɓakarsa: Yana ɗauke da sinadarin fosforos (Phosphorous) wanda ke taimaka wa ƙashi wajen girma da haɓɓaka sannan kuma ya gyara shi idan ya samu lalura.
  8. Gudawa: Gero yana hana gudawa saboda sinadarin laktik asid (Lactic acid) da yake ɗauke da shi. Wannan sinadari kuma shi ne bakteriya.
  9. Tallafa wa garkuwan jiki: Gero yana ɗauke da sinadaran da suke saka shi yake zama garkuwa ga jiki.
  10.  Kansa: Gero yana bayar da kariya daga kamuwa da cutar kansar mama. Saboda yana ɗauke da sinadaran finolik asid (Phenolic acids), tanin (Tannins) da kuma fitet (Phytate) sinadaran da suke samar da sinadaran da ke yaƙar ƙwayoyin cutar da suke haddasa kansar mama.
  11.  Kariya daga lalacewar tsokar jiki da kuma saurin warkar da rauni (Kamar yankewa ko tujewar fatar jiki). Saboda yana ɗauke da sinadarin ferulik asid (Ferulic acid).
  12. Yana ɗumama yanayin jiki a lokutan sanyi da na damina.

Abincin da Ake yi da Gero

Muhimmai daga cikin nu’aukan abincin gargajiya da ake yi a Ƙasar Hausa da gero sun haɗa da:

  1. Tuwon Biski.
  2. Dambu.
  3. Fate ko Fate-fate.
  4. Tuwon Laushi.
  5. Kunun Tsamiya.
  6. Kunun Gyaɗa.
  7. Kunun Kanwa.
  8. Koko.
  9. Waina ko Masa.
  10. Fura.
  11. Gumba.

Manazarta:


Changmei S. da Dorothy J. (2014). Millet- the Frugal Grain. Department of Food Service Management and Dietetics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews, ISSN: 2279–0543.

Deepak S., da sauransu (2012). Nutritional Bio-fortification in Pearl Millet. Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore,  Manasagangotri, Kamataka, India, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Mark Plank Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knoll-Strabe Jena, Germany. The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology.

Encyclopædia Britannica. (2010). Millet. Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite.  Chicago, USA.

Malik S. (2015). Pearl Millet-Nutritional Value and Medicinal Uses! Dept. of Home Science, B.P.S Women’s University Khanpur Kalan (Hry). An ciro daga: http://ijariie.com a shekarar 2018.

Microsoft Encarta (2009). Millet. Microsoft Student 2009 [DƁD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008, USA.

Sahu, Kumar R. da Sharma, M.L. (2013). Medicinal and Other Uses of Small Millets by the Tribal Farmers of the Bastar Plateau Zone of Chhattisgarh. Agric. Update, 8(4): 596-599.

Sarita da Singh E. (2016). Potential of Millets: Nutrients Composition and Health Benefits. Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Faculty of Home Science, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan-304022, India. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2016; 5(2): 46-50. An ciro daga jsirjournal.com a shekarar 2018.
Shobana S. (Babu Shekara). Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits of Millets. Department of Foods Nutrition & Dietetics Research. Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. An ciro daga http://www.ilsi-india.org A shekarar 2018

Vanisha S. Nambiar S.V., Dhaduk J.J., Sareen N., Shahu T. da Desai R. (2011). Potential Functional Implications of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Health and Disease. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (10); 2011: 62-67. An ciro daga www.japsononline.com a shekarar 2018.